Sunday, December 29, 2019
Kim Il-Sung (April 15, 1912Ã¢â¬âJuly 8, 1994) of North Korea established one of the worlds most powerful cults of personality, known as the Kim Dynasty or Mount Paektu Bloodline. Although succession in communist regimes usually passes between members of the top political echelons, North Korea has become a hereditary dictatorship, with Kims son and grandson taking power in turn. Fast Facts: Kim Il-Sung Known For: Prime Minister, Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea 1948Ã¢â¬â1972, President 1972Ã¢â¬â1994, and establishing the Kim Dynasty in KoreaBorn: April 15, 1912 in Mangyongdae, Pyongyang, KoreaParents: Kim Hyong-jik and Kang Pan-sokDied: July 8, 1994 at Hyangsan Residence, North Pyongan province, North KoreaEducation: 20 years in Manchuria as a guerrilla fighter against the JapaneseSpouse(s): Kim Jung Sook (m. 1942, died 1949); Kim Seong Ae (m. 1950, died 1994)Children: Two sons, one daughter from Kim Jung Sook, including Kim Jong Il (1942Ã¢â¬â2011); and two sons and three daughters from Kim Seong Ae Early Life Kim Il-Sung was born in Japanese-occupied Korea on April 15, 1912, not long after Japan formally annexed the peninsula.Ã His parents, Kim Hyong-jik and Kang Pan-sok, named him Kim Song-ju. Kims family may have been Protestant Christians; Kims official biography claims that they were also anti-Japanese activists, but that is a remarkably unreliable source. In any case, the family went into exile in Manchuria in 1920 to escape either Japanese oppression, famine, or both. While in Manchuria, according to North Korean government sources, Kim Il-Sung joined the anti-Japanese resistance at the age of 14. He became interested in Marxism at 17 and joined a small communist youth group as well. Two years later in 1931, Kim became a member of the anti-imperialist Chinese Communist Party (CCP), inspired in large part by his hatred of the Japanese. He took this step just a few months before Japan occupied Manchuria, following the trumped-up Mukden Incident.Ã In 1935, the 23-year-old Kim joined a guerrilla faction run by the Chinese Communists called the Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army. His superior officer Wei Zhengmin had contacts high in the CCP and took Kim under his wing. That same year, Kim changed his name to Kim Il-Sung. By the following year, the young Kim was in command of a division of several hundred men. His division briefly captured a small town on the Korean/Chinese border from the Japanese; this little victory made him very popular among the Korean guerrillas and their Chinese sponsors. As Japan strengthened its hold over Manchuria and pushed into China proper, it drove Kim and the survivors of his division across the Amur River into Siberia. The Soviets welcomed the Koreans, retraining them and forming them into a division of the Red Army. Kim Il-Sung was promoted to the rank of major and fought for the Soviet Red Army for the rest of World War II. Return to Korea When Japan surrendered to the Allies, the Soviets marched into Pyongyang on August 15, 1945, and occupied the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. With very little previous planning, the Soviets and Americans divided Korea roughly along the 38th parallel of latitude. Kim Il-Sung returned to Korea on August 22, and the Soviets appointed him head of the Provisional Peoples Committee. Kim immediately established the Korean Peoples Army (KPA), made up of veterans, and began to consolidate power in Soviet-occupied northern Korea. On September 9, 1945, Kim Il-Sung announced the creation of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, with himself as premier. The U.N. had planned Korea-wide elections, but Kim and his Soviet sponsors had other ideas; the Soviets recognized Kim as premier of the entire Korean peninsula. Kim Il-Sung began to build his personality cult in North Korea and develop his military, with massive amounts of Soviet-built weaponry. By June 1950, he was able to convince Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong that he was ready to reunify Korea under a communist flag. The Korean War Within three months of North Koreas June 25, 1950 attack on South Korea, Kim Il-Sungs army had driven the southern forces and their U.N. allies down to a last-ditch defensive line on the southern coast of the peninsula, called the Pusan Perimeter. It seemed that victory was close at hand for Kim. However, the southern and U.N. forces rallied and pushed back, capturing Kims capital at Pyongyang in October. Kim Il-Sung and his ministers had to flee to China. Maos government was not willing to have the U.N. forces on his border, however, so when the southern troops reached the Yalu River, China intervened on Kim Il-Sungs side. Months of bitter fighting followed, but the Chinese retook Pyongyang in December. The war dragged on until July of 1953, when it ended in a stalemate with the peninsula divided once more along the 38th Parallel. Kims bid to reunify Korea under his rule had failed. North Korean leader Kim Il-Sung signs the Korean Armistice Agreement at Pyongyang, North Korea, 1953. Hulton Archive/Getty Images Building North Korea Kim Il-Sungs country was devastated by the Korean War. He sought to rebuild its agricultural base by collectivizing all of the farmsÃ and to create an industrial base of state-owned factories producing weapons and heavy machinery.Ã In addition to building a communist command economy, he needed to consolidate his own power. Kim Il-Sung put out propaganda celebrating his (exaggerated) role in fighting the Japanese, spread rumors that the U.N. had deliberately spread disease among North Koreans, and disappeared any political opponents who spoke against him. Gradually, Kim created a Stalinist country in which all information (and misinformation) came from the state, and citizens dared not display the slightest disloyalty to their leader for fear of vanishing into a prison camp, never to be seen again. To ensure docility, the government would often disappear entire families if one member spoke out against Kim. The Sino-Soviet split in 1960 left Kim Il-Sung in an awkward position. Kim disliked Nikita Khrushchev, so he initially sided with the Chinese. When Soviet citizens were allowed to openly criticize Stalin during de-Stalinization, some North Koreans seized the opportunity to speak out against Kim as well. After a brief period of uncertainty, Kim instituted his second purge, executing many critics and driving others out of the country. Relations with China were complicated as well. An aging Mao was losing his grip on power, so he initiated the Cultural Revolution in 1967. Weary of the instability in China and wary that a similarly chaotic movement might spring up in North Korea, Kim Il-Sung denounced the Cultural Revolution.Ã Mao, furious with this about-face, began publishing anti-Kim broadsides. When China and the United States began a cautious rapprochement, Kim turned to the smaller communist countries of Eastern Europe to find new allies, particularly East Germany and Romania. Kim also turned away from classical Marxist-Stalinist ideology and began to promote his own idea of Juche or self-reliance. Juche developed into an almost religious ideal, with Kim in a central position as its creator. According to the principles of Juche, the North Korean people have a duty to be independent of other nations in their political thought, their defense of the country, and in economic terms. This philosophy has greatly complicated international aid efforts during North Koreas frequent famines. Inspired by Ho Chi Minhs successful use of guerrilla warfare and espionage against the Americans, Kim Il-Sung stepped up the use of subversive tactics against the South Koreans and their American allies across the DMZ. On January 21, 1968, Kim sent a 31-man special forces unit into Seoul to assassinate South Korean President Park Chung-Hee. The North Koreans got to within 800 meters of the presidential residence, the Blue House, before they were stopped by South Korean police. Kims Later Rule Miroslav Zajic/Getty Images In 1972, Kim Il-Sung proclaimed himself president, and in 1980 he appointed his son Kim Jong-il as his successor. China initiated economic reforms and became more integrated into the world under Deng Xiaoping; this left North Korea increasingly isolated. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, Kim and North Korea stood nearly alone. Crippled by the cost of maintaining a million-man army, North Korea was in dire straits. Death and Legacy On July 8, 1994, the now 82-year-old president Kim Il-Sung suddenly died of a heart attack. His son Kim Jong-il took power. However, the younger Kim did not formally take the title of presidentÃ¢â¬âinstead, he declared Kim Il-Sung as the Eternal President of North Korea. Today, portraits and statues of Kim Il-Sung stand throughout the country, and his embalmed body rests in a glass coffin at the Kumsusan Palace of the Sun in Pyongyang. Sources Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, Great Leader Kim Il Sung Biography.French, Paul. North Korea: The Paranoid Peninsula, A Modern History (2nd ed.). London: Zed Books, 2007.Horvat, Andrew. Obituary: Kim Il Sung. Independent, July 11, 1994. Web.Lankov, Andrei N.Ã From Stalin to Kim il Sung: The Formation of North Korea, 1945-1960. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002.Reid, T. R. North Korean President Kim Il Sung Dies at 82. The Washington Post, July 9, 1994.Sanger, David E. Kim Il Sung Dead at Age 82; Led North Korea 5 Decades; Was Near Talks With South. The New York Times, July 9, 1994. Web.Suh Dae-Sook.Ã Kim il Sung: The North Korean Leader. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.
Saturday, December 21, 2019
1.Introduction The aim of this report is to analyse RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s current service culture and provide a new strategy to refocus the Ryanair brand to make it more customer-focused and family friendly. In 1971, Southwest Airlines revolutionised air travel with its low fares and strong focus on customer service. Ryanair used SouthwestÃ¢â¬â¢s innovative business model and have become very successful. Today it operates across 26 countries and carries more international passengers than any other airline in the world (73 million passengers in 2010/11) On the other hand, unlike Southwest Airlines, Ryanair did not consider focusing on customer service. They have a very poor reputation in this area (Euromonitor International, March 2009). Even thoughÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Although pilots and the cabin crew work very hard, they are still underpaid. According to ITFÃ¢â¬â¢s survey, EasyJet staff earn better than RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s. In addition to that, the cabin crew are expected to pay for their own uniforms, airport ID and meals (see appendix 4) as well as training expenses. For example, it has been reported by ITF that trainee pilots have to pay Ã £60,000 for their own training and they are not paid salary during this period. They pay this money as they hope it will result in them earning a high salary after they qualify, but this is not guaranteed. 2.3 Recruitment methods and Training It seems like Ryanair follows the normal procedure for recruitment (advertising, interviewing and training the successful candidates) but the documentary which is called Ã¢â¬Å"Ryanair caught nappingÃ¢â¬ (Channel 4, 2006) shows that their training programme is very poor. Additionally, the documentary also shows how safety and security checks are inadequate, how dirty the planes are, as well as exhausted employees who complain about the long working hours. All these resulted in poor performance and work results. The highlighted service culture problems urgently need to be fixed. Otherwise it would affect RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s success and effectiveness in the long term. Ryanair needs to understand that having a strong service culture is very important for an organisation because; * There is a high degree of competition: For a companyShow MoreRelatedThe Hospitality And Tourism Industry1422 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof the key players to this industry is the cabin crew. However, according to Laszlo Ã¢â¬Å" with recent economic decline the airline industry is not in good health in terms of operation and customer service organizationÃ¢â¬ said (1999). It is therefore, important to understand that the crews must perform function as key player in an airline industry by providing various types of customer service, safety and security threats, sales and promotion. As cabin crews are playing a crucial role in the industryRead MoreLooking At The Customer Service Of Ryanair1663 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages 1. 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With on ground appropriate training , cabin crew manage to have sufficient knowledge about basic product and services but to feed the cabin crew continuouslyRead MoreSingapore International Airlines1597 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesattendants or crews that can be seen until now have been designed by French Couturier Pierre Balmain. Question 1: Describe what is so special about SIAÃ¢â¬â¢a five elements of its successful HR practices? Singapore Airlines (SIA) has been most awarded airline in the world for many years. There are several key element of success that has been practiced by SIA. Singapore Airline has successfully deliver service excellence in a cost-effective way as their cost is much more below all other aviation service providerRead MoreIdentification and Description of Singapore Airlines Processes1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand Description of SIAs Processes The major processes of Singapore International Airlines consist of cabin service, flight operations, commercial marketing, information technology, engineering, security, and airport services and training. Excellent cabin service includes greeting passengers upon entering the cabin and directing them to their seats, providing them with information about the services and treating them with hospitality and courtesy. Flight operations determine that the flights are wellRead MoreSingapore Airlines And The Business Industry1625 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSingapore Airlines (SIA) is one of the leading companies in the airline industry. They are well-known for their customer service. The basis of the philosophy of SIA is the fact that the quality of service will decide the success or failure of an organization. The management believes in providing value for the money the passengers pay. They recognize the vital role of the employees in this endeavor (Wyckoff, 1989). A well-managed organization co nsiders satisfied and motivated employees as the basic
Friday, December 13, 2019
Legal System has developed gradually in Bangladesh with her growth as a nation over the centuries. Before the advent of British rule this part of the country was under Mughal rule. The Mughals seized power from the Turko-Afghan sultans who ruled the country since the beginning of the 13th century. We will write a custom essay sample on Legal History of Bangladesh Short or any similar topic only for you Order Now It was under the Hindu ruler (Aryans) for 1500 years before and after the beginning of Christian era when they conquered the land by vanquishing the indigenous people. During the Turko-Mughal rule the country formed the eastern part of Subah Bangla and, during the British rule, eastern part of the province of Bengal. Historical development of Legal System of Bangladesh: Legal history of Bangladesh can conveniently be studied under five important periods Ã¢â¬â Hindu Period, Muslim Period, British Period, Pakistan Period and after independence (or Bangladesh period History Development of Legal System in Bangladesh: Hindu Period to Pakistan Period Md. Ziadul Islam Chowdhury Sadi Department of Law University of Dhaka Legal System has developed gradually in Bangladesh with her growth as a nation over the centuries. Before the advent of British rule this part of the country was under Mughal rule. The Mughals seized power from the Turko-Afghan sultans who ruled the country since the beginning of the 13th century. It was under the Hindu ruler (Aryans) for 1500 years before and after the beginning of Christian era when they conquered the land by vanquishing the indigenous people. During the Turko-Mughal rule the country formed the eastern part of Subah Bangla and, during the British rule, eastern part of the province of Bengal. Historical development of Legal System of Bangladesh: Legal history of Bangladesh can conveniently be studied under five important periods Ã¢â¬â Hindu Period, Muslim Period, British Period, Pakistan Period and after independence (or Bangladesh period). HINDU PERIOD: Introduction Sources of Law Legal system in Bangladesh under Hindu period is also known as Aryan legal system because during Hindu period law and legal system were mainly developed by Aryans who migrated from central Asia. After coming to India the Aryans followed certain norms in their conduct with one another. Read also History Quizzes The rules of conduct (achar) of each class included religious observances which were binding, and violation of the same was expiated by the rituals of penance (prayaschitta). The Brahmins, the priestly class, helped the wrongdoers in performing those rituals. Those rules of conduct were called dharma and included duties and obligations. In course of time it became the dharma of the king to compel the people to observe their rules of conduct and the Brahmins, as the repository of knowledge of those rules, advised the king in administering the same. Legal obligations and their violations were How to cite Legal History of Bangladesh Short, Papers